Ethos ist ein Gemeinschaftsprojekt von Pininfarina und Orbital Engineering(Motor), 1995. Leichtes kleines Auto mit sehr guten Verbrauchswerten. Die Daten sollten jedem derzeitigen Auto - gerade auch Neuerscheinungen - die Schamesröte in den Grill treiben. Ich leite hier nur mit kurzen Worten ein, was unter http://www.orbeng.com.au/ethos.htm zu finden ist. Hier in einer Grafik der Vergleich der Drehmomente verschiedener Motoren: 2-Ventil-Viertakt-, 4-Ventil-Viertakt-, OCP und OCP mit Kompressor. OCP steht für Orbital Combustion Process und ist eine Einspritzung mit Luftunterstützung, so daß sehr feine Tröpfchen erzeugt werden. Schon vor dem Katalysator werden Abgaswerte erreicht, die andere erst danach erreichen. Der Leistung schadet das ganze auch nicht gerade, wie man sieht. Rüdiger ;-)
Bearing in mind, of course, the environmental aspects of the
Ethos project as well as market factors and particularly the
On the one hand, any such model would only be targeted at the rising, young motorist with sufficient, though not unlimited financial means. On the other, its natural positioning is a fairly restricted market niche. For one thing, Pininfarina does not go in for high volume production and industrial planning had to bear that in mind as well.
All these factors served to point the character of the Ethos prototype in the direction of simplicity and simplification.
Dimensions and weights
Mid-rear, positioned transversely.
Displacement: 1200 cc
No. of cylinders: 3
Operating cycle: 2 stroke
Peak torque: 125 Nm (12,7 mkg) at 3500 rpm.
Light alloy monobloc and cylinder head.
Engine power installed on prototype at 70 kW (95 bhp) to simultate the weight/power ratio of the project, guaranteeing respect for European emission standards.
Stratified charge OCP (Orbital Combustion Process) combustion system.
Fuel supply: air wash through the crankcase, fuel injection straight into the combustion chamber by low pressure air compressor.
Throttle valve on the intake manifold and adjustable gate valve on discharge ducts, electronically controlled.
Separate lubrication with electronically controlled pump, without oil recovery.
Exhaust system designed to incorporate oxidising catalyser.
Rear wheel drive.
Electronically controlled 5-speed mechanical gearbox + reverse, with engagement servo on the secondary shaft.
1st = 3.583
2nd = 2.038
3rd = 1.394
4th = 1.051
5th = 0.814
Reverse = 3.615
Rear axle ratio = 4
Front, overlapping identical wishbones in pressed steel sheet, helical springs and coaxial telescopic dampers, anti-roll bar.
Rear, MacPherson system with telescopic struts and helical spring, lower wishbone identical to the front and short transverse reaction arm, anti-roll bar.
Aluminium wheel-hub supports.
Boxed structure in folded steel sheet, with lightening holes, 1 mm thick, spot welded.
Flood and engine bay bulkhead in flat honeycomb panels of aluminium, bonded and riveted.
Front bonnet in aluminium.
Other fixed panels and mobile parts in plastic materials (recyclable thermoplastics): G.E. NORYL GTX
Thickness 4 mm, thermo-moulded.
Windscreen in laminated glass, bonded on a detachable structure.
Detachable side windows.
Folding detachable emergency canvas hood.
Engine coolant radiator positioned frontally.
Disc brakes on all 4 wheels, self-ventilating at the front, with brake servo, without ABS.
Rack and pinion steering without servo.
Petrol tank in a protected position in front of the rear wheel axle.
- Mid engine and rear wheel drive for all-round optimum road behaviour and safer driving;
- Light weight for extra agility and fuel economy and consequently less pollution;
- A sturdy car with unusual rigidity properties and sparkling performance on a relatively moderate power output;
- High level active and passive safety. Due allowance has been made for safety factors envisaged by the new European legislation for 1995 such as dynamic steering-wheel pull-back, collapsibility of the steering column and resistance to a dynamic lateral collision against a mobile barrier. The design also satisfies the conditions a head-on collision at 56 km/h against a 30 barrier and a head-on "AMUS" collision at 55 km/h and fits a European-type airbag on the steering- wheel.
- Weight down to only 700 kg. Thanks to the innovative technologies employed, an extra 20-30 kg would have done no harm, but with safety at a premium, Pininfarina kept to the originally established figure;
- Lattice frame of recyclable extruded aluminium;
- Recyclable thermoset plastic body;
- Light compact, "clean" Orbital engine;
- Moderate dimensions and bulk;
- Extremely rational, functional body parts, instruments, accessories: no wind-down door windows; no hood, but a canvas for emergencies; motor-bike type instruments etc. The final picture is one of a small sportscar, for young nature-lovers looking for a "green machine" that is also a superior performer that can be driven for pleasure in freedom and safety.
3.- Driven gears
9.- Rotary actuator
In Greek, Ethos means character, habit, way of living. It also means ethics, a set of moral laws and standards that should form the guidelines of each human life. A powerful name and perhaps an excessive claim for a car.
We are however living through great changes. Increasingly, we are learning to consider, not only the needs of human beings, but also those of the environment and of Nature itself. This new way of seeing things has also permeated industrial culture. A way of thinking surely more adult and mature, distinguished by the awareness that the environment has its own laws and that it is our duty to respect them.
The Ethos project is deeply rooted in this new awareness. This car is a friend of the environment, thrifty with fuel, non-polluting in its exhaust emissions, and built with recyclable materials. Designed so that when it comes to the end of its useful life, all of it will be recovered, dismantled and recycled.
This is the new ethic of motor car manufacture: the conception of a new car in which people's comfort and safety are ensured by the use of non-polluting materials that can be reused, a car that is consequently safe for the environment.
It is an ethic that transcends the creation of new models and also permeates Pininfarina manufacturing processes. Take the new "Blue Sky" plant thought up by Pininfarina and created as a joint venture with PPG. The new plant processes and applies water-based paints that are significant less polluting than other kinds, with absolutely no loss of quality. So the name Ethos is both meaningful and logical.
It marks the commitment of a company that wants to design and build cars in harmonious accord with the environment. Cars that satisfy people's reasonable desire for freedom, for a way of overcoming the limitations imposed by distances and boundaries that the people of our time still resent. But also cars that can leave nature undisturbed by reconciling respect for the environment with our own insistent need for mobility.
The ethos is a two- seater "barchetta" with a shape that is at once safely moulded and aggressive.
Like the earlier Farrari Mythos presented at the 1989 Tokyo Motor Show, its appearance goes beyond the car design concept of our sides tacked together into a philosophy of related masses. And the whole thing pateddown to eh essentials, rejecting frills and embellishments to proclaim the functional character that was the keynote of the entire project.
The image of the Ethos prototype is that of a sculpture composed of separate blocks and dynamic surfaces in which two volumes intersect, slashed by a lateral line that accentuates the wedge shape. A dynamic image whose dominant features are the upper volume incorporating the passenger compartment, the two head-restraint domes behind the lids that partially corner the rear wheels.
The steeply raked nose that accompanies the movement of the windscreen by incorporating an air intake bracketed between the two headlights, over a small aerodynamic lip and a bigger aperture that directs air onto the radiators.
At the rear, the dead-restraint domes end in a big fin that helps to provide greater stability (negative lift effect).
Another slit lets air in to the engine. The lighting clusters are sunk onto the tail and , like the headlights, conform to current legislation. On either side of the windscreen is a stalked rear view mirror such as we find on many Formula 1 cars and racing prototypes, Lighting cluster, bumpers and spoiler were deliberately integrated into the whole with not the slightest hint of decretive role. A styling decision that also underlines the simplicity of the project.
The model was tested in the Pininfarina wind tunnel. The outcome was a Cd of 0.34, an impressive drag coefficient for an open car.
Another characteristic feature of the Ethos prototype design is the way interior and exterior forma unified ensemble. Jus like a motorbike tha has no inside or outside but is a single unit. On the Ethos the upper module
The 165/60 R15 tyres were specially designed by Goodyear to provide outstanding energy efficiency. The structure, mix and tread design were studied to decrease rolling resistance and cut fuel consumption.
DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHTS
Length 3,975 mm Width 1,660 mm Height 1,150 mm Wheelbase 2,300 mm Front and rear track 1,390 mm Tyres 165/60 R15 Wheel rims 5.5J x 15 Weight unladen 730 kg
mid-rear, positioned transversely, two cylinder in-line, direct injection, stratified charge two stroke
Displacement: 0.8 Litre (798 ccm) No. of cylinders: 2 Power: 40 kW (55HP) at 5500 rpm Torque: 75 Nm - 8 mkg - at 5000 rpm (67 Nm - 7 mkg - at 1500 rpm) Weight: 44 kg Bore: 84.00 mm Stroke: 72.00 mm Compression Ratio: 10.5 : 1 Ignition: Breakerless, high energy inductive Lubrication: Electronically metered Fuel Requirement: Petrol, 91 R.O.N. (unleaded) Coolant: Water/Glycol mixture (50/50) Packaging: 250 mm x 381 mm x 520 mm Materials: Aluminium alloy block and head. Steel crankshaft
Front, overlapping identical wishbones in pressed steel sheet, helicoidal springs and coaxial telescopic shock absorbers, anti-roll bar. Rear, McPherson system with telescopic struts and helicoidal springs, lower wishbone identical to the front and short transverse reaction arm, anti-roll bar. Aluminium wheel-hub supports.
Extruded aluminium space frame. Floor, dividing sections and door panels in aluminium sheet, glued together and riveted with self-piercing riveting technology. Total weight : 85 kg.
Fixed and mobile panels in recyclable thermoplastics GE NORYL GTX thickness 4 mm, thermomoulded.
Fuel Economy: (mpg=Meilen pro Gallone, 1,609 km pro 4,535 l) 60 kph - 2,61 litres/100km (108mpg) 90 kph - 2,10 litres/100km (135mpg) 120 kph - 2,76 litres/100km (102mpg) Acceleration: 0 to 100km/h in 13 seconds Max. speed: 200 kph (computer projection)
DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHTS
Displacement: 1,200 cc No. of cylinders: 3 Cycle: 2-stroke Peak torque: 125 Nm (12.7 kgm) at 3,500 rpm Max. power output: 70kW (95 bhp) at 5,500 rpm
Automatic CVT transmission with continuously variable ratio between 3.84 and 0.66
Rear axle ratio: 3.84
Electromechanical activation with electronic control.
Hydraulic servo assisted steering
Operating pressure: 100 bar
Front: McPherson telescopic struts and coil springs
Rear: interconnected trailing arms
Parking brake on rear wheels
The driving position, which includes all the vehicle controls, slides sideways and can be activated from any front seat.
Front seats: bench with total longitudinal travel, independent movement of centre seat. Rear seat: adjustable bench, independent movement of centre seat and foldable squabs.
Dimensions and Weights Length 3,240 mm Width 1,690 mm Height 1,470 mm Front overhang 510 mm Rear overhang 430 mm Wheelbase 2,300 mm Front Track 1,470 mm Rear Track 1,430 mm Tyres 165/60 R15 Wheel rim 5.5J x 15 Curb weight 780 kg
Top speed over 180 km/h